Cannabis For Sleep: The Pros and Cons

Cannabis For Sleep: The Pros and Cons


Can cannabis improve your sleep?

The short answer is YES. But it’s worth digging deeper.

This guide examines the effects of THC and CBD on sleep, the efficacy of different strains, consumption methods, and the best strains for the night. Whether you’re curious about how cannabis sleep aids might benefit you or cautious of potential risks, you’ll find the insights you need.


Key Takeaways


  • Cannabis contains cannabinoids like THC and CBD, which can affect sleep by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system, potentially altering sleep architecture and influencing disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome.

  • Different methods of cannabis consumption (smoking, vaporizing, edibles, and tinctures) have varying onset times and effects on sleep, while strain types (indica, sativa, hybrid) are also significant in determining the impact on sleep quality.

  • While some individuals have reported improved sleep quality when using cannabis as a sleep aid, concerns remain about potential dependency, disruption of normal sleep patterns, and negative interactions with other medications, highlighting the need for more comprehensive research and personalized approaches.

Understanding Sleep Disorders and the Need for Aid

Illustration of a person struggling to sleep

Sleep disorders are a widespread issue that affects millions of people worldwide. In America alone, more than 50 million people suffer from chronic sleep disorders, with similar prevalence rates reported in other parts of the world. Sleep-wake disorders can be associated with medical conditions or other mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety.

With such staggering numbers, it’s clear that effective sleep aids are needed to improve mental and physical health by enhancing the quality of sleep and overall well-being.



Insomnia, a prevalent sleep disorder, is characterized by:

  • Difficulty falling or staying asleep

  • These sleep issues occur at least three nights a week for no less than three months

  • Significantly impacting the quality of life.

With chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder often exacerbating poor sleep and chronic insomnia, finding effective sleep medicine, sleep aids, and pain relief is crucial.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea


Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by repeated interruptions in breathing during sleep, leading to excessive daytime sleepiness. This disorder is more frequently diagnosed in men, older adults, and certain racial and ethnic groups, highlighting the need for effective sleep aids tailored to these demographics.

Restless Legs Syndrome


Restless Legs Syndrome, recognized as a sleep-wake disorder, can disrupt sleep and impact overall well-being. An effective sleep aid could significantly less insomnia medications improve the quality of life for individuals affected by this disorder.

The Science Behind Cannabis and Sleep


Illustration of cannabis components interacting with cannabinoid receptors

Unveiling the science behind how cannabis affects us and sleep brings us to THC and CBD, the main components of the cannabis plant that influence sleep. THC typically acts as a sedative, while CBD can influence alertness or sleepiness depending on the dosage. These cannabinoids promote sleep by binding to cannabinoid receptors, increasing adenosine levels. This process can suppress the brain’s arousal systems, potentially enhancing the duration of NREM sleep while reducing the amount of REM sleep.

Interestingly, the method of cannabis consumption can influence the effectiveness of THC as a sleep aid. This is due to the differing rates of bioavailability; for instance, inhaled THC has a higher bioavailability compared to orally ingested forms found in edibles. This leads us to the exploration of cannabis consumption methods and their impact on sleep.


THC and Sleep


THC, one of the cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, has a significant impact on sleep. It interacts with cannabinoid receptors, leading to increased levels of the sleep-promoting chemical adenosine and suppressing the brain’s arousal systems. These interactions can impact sleep architecture, potentially lengthening the duration of NREM sleep and reducing time in REM sleep.

However, the effectiveness of THC on sleep is influenced by the method of consumption. For instance, vaporizing cannabis with low doses of THC increases non-REM sleep during the light phase, although these effects may only last for the first hour after consumption. Furthermore, vaporizing cannabis can cause reductions in the power of high-frequency brain waves during wakefulness and REM sleep, suggesting subtle impacts on cognitive processing.


CBD and Sleep


The other key component of the cannabis plant, CBD, holds varying effects on sleep depending on the dosage. Here are some key points to note about CBD and sleep:

  • At lower doses, CBD may increase alertness

  • At higher doses, CBD has the potential to promote sleep

  • CBD can be beneficial in reducing symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder

  • CBD may help alleviate daytime sleepiness

Understanding how these cannabis components interact with other sleep disorders is crucial, but it’s equally important to recognize the impact of different methods of cannabis consumption on sleep.

Cannabis Consumption Methods and Their Impact on Sleep


girl, sleep, rose

Distinct methods of cannabis consumption can result in varying effects on sleep. Smoking or vaporizing cannabis typically leads to quicker onset of sleep due to faster absorption and immediate effects. On the other hand, cannabis edibles take longer to induce sleep due to delayed absorption through the digestive system.

Despite the time differences in onset, both methods can significantly impact sleep quality, with some users reporting more restful sleep while others experience disturbances.


Smoking and Vaporizing


Smoking and vaporizing cannabis provide rapid effects due to the high bioavailability of inhaled cannabis. A significant proportion of the THC content is absorbed into the bloodstream, resulting in faster sleep onset. The effects of THC from inhaled cannabis typically peak around 10 minutes post-inhalation, illustrating the method’s rapid onset of action.

This quick absorption allows individuals to fall asleep faster, potentially improving good night’s sleep quality.


Edibles and Tinctures


In contrast to smoking and vaporizing, edibles and tinctures have a slower onset due to the digestive processes involved. When cannabis is ingested as edibles, only 4% to 20% of THC is absorbed, resulting in lower bioavailability compared to smoked cannabis. This high variability in how edibles can affect sleep is due to differences in individual digestive system processing and the bioavailability of THC.

Despite their slower onset, edibles and tinctures can lead to longer sleep duration compared to inhalation methods.


Strains Matter: How Different Types of Cannabis Affect Sleep

Illustration of different cannabis strains with contrasting effects

Beyond the components and consumption methods, the type of cannabis strain also plays a crucial role in affecting sleep. The main terms used when discussing cannabis strains for sleep are indica, sativa, and hybrid, each associated with distinct effects on sleep.

Indica Strains


Indica strains are commonly associated with a calming effect, which can contribute to relaxation and potentially improve sleep quality. Due to their sedative effect, indica strains are often preferred for pain management and inducing sleepiness in individuals seeking natural sleep aids. However, the effects can vary significantly among individuals, underscoring the need for personalized approaches to using cannabis as a sleep aid.

Sativa Strains

Sativa strains, on the other hand, are known for their ‘head high’ effects, characterized by uplifting and euphoric feelings that can enhance creativity and energy. Due to their high THC content, sativa strains can disrupt sleep patterns and inhibit deep sleep. Some cannabis users may experience an increase in anxiety and paranoia with sativa strains, further interfering with sleep.

However, certain sativa strains with specific terpenes or minor cannabinoids may still provide some sleep aid benefits, particularly for individuals without anxiety.

Hybrid Strains

Hybrid strains, as the name suggests, offer a mix of indica and sativa traits, aiming to provide a balance between the effects of both. These strains are bred to achieve specific effects that may be physical, cerebral, or a combination of both. Users report that hybrid strains can provide a balance of sedative and uplifting effects, beneficial for sleep. Some popular hybrid strains include:

1: Zkittles

2: Gorrilla Glue

3: Auto White Widow

4: Northern Lights

However, the effects on sleep can vary widely depending on the dominant strain traits and the individual’s response. Some hybrid strains are reported to help with sleep due to their ability to induce relaxation without excessive drowsiness.

Potential Benefits of Cannabis as a Sleep Aid

Cannabis, particularly THC, can provide significant benefits as a sleep aid. It has sedative effects that can expedite sleep onset and increase sleep quality, benefiting those with chronic pain, PTSD, and multiple sclerosis. THC has been shown to reduce the time spent in REM sleep, which can be particularly advantageous for PTSD patients by decreasing the frequency of nightmares.

In a study at Hybrid Pharm, 39% of patients with sleep disorders who used medical cannabis were able to decrease or stop using their prescription sleep medications. Additionally, 71% of the patients studied reported subjective improvements in sleep quality after initiating medical cannabis use. These findings underscore the potential benefits of cannabis as a sleep aid.

Drawbacks and Risks of Using Cannabis for Sleep

While cannabis can provide notable benefits for sleep, it’s crucial to acknowledge the potential drawbacks and risks associated with its use. If taken in high doses at night, THC may lead to drowsiness and impaired memory the next day. It is important to be mindful of the potential effects when consuming THC in high amounts in the evening. Regular users of cannabis typically report more sleep disturbances, and a significant percentage of adults experience difficulty sleeping during attempts to discontinue cannabis use, which can contribute to dependency.

Furthermore, the effects of cannabis on sleep patterns have been studied extensively. Frequent, long-term use may result in less overall sleep, diminished time in deep sleep, longer sleep onset, and more frequent awakenings. Withdrawal from cannabis can lead to anxiety, restlessness, tremor, and significant insomnia, with disturbed sleep and vivid dreams persisting for weeks, often worsening anxiety, mood, and contributing to suicidal ideation.

Interactions with Other Medications and Treatments

Cannabis can interact with a variety of medications, leading to potentially dangerous side effects. These include interactions with:

  • Sedatives

  • Anti-anxiety medications

  • Antidepressants

  • Pain medications

  • Anticonvulsants

  • Anticoagulants

Pharmacists, particularly those in San Diego, are actively involved in educating the public on the risks of combining cannabis with prescription medications and are committed to supporting patients with cannabis-based therapy management.

Moreover, substances and medications that may interact negatively with medical cannabis include:

  • Benzodiazepines

  • Certain antidepressants

  • Opioids

  • Antipsychotics

  • Some antihistamines

  • St. John’s wort

  • Kava

Furthermore, CBD in medical cannabis may inhibit the hepatic enzyme CYP2C19, resulting in delayed breakdown and potential adverse effects of various other medications metabolized by this enzyme.


Alternative Therapies and Approaches to Improve Sleep


While cannabis can serve as an effective sleep aid for some, it’s important to consider alternative therapies for those who may not want to use cannabis or those for whom cannabis may not be effective. These alternatives can include meditation and mindfulness, which can improve sleep by reducing muscle tension and quieting the mind while enhancing melatonin levels.

Regular low-to-moderate intensity exercise, including activities like tai chi and yoga, can also enhance sleep quality. Acupuncture, a practice from traditional Chinese medicine, may improve sleep quality. Sleep hypnosis by a health professional can lead to behavioral changes conducive to better sleep. Herbal remedies like valerian root and chamomile have been traditionally used for treating insomnia, though their efficacy requires more evidence.

Light therapy and consistent exercise regimes are nonpharmacological approaches with efficacy in managing insomnia.


Clinical Research and Future Developments in Cannabis Sleep Aids


Current research on cannabis for sleep is limited, with promising initial results but a need for larger and longer-term clinical trials to establish its efficacy and safety. To date, there is only one randomized controlled trial conducted on healthy patients with insomnia, contributing to the dearth of strong evidence for cannabinoid use as sleep aids. A comprehensive review aimed at updating the current literature found little convincing evidence for significant improvements in sleep disorders with cannabis products.

Despite the limited data, the potential of cannabis products for treating conditions such as sleep apnea has been recognized, alongside calls for larger and longer-term trials to adequately evaluate these effects. As such, the future of cannabis as a sleep aid holds promise, but also requires rigorous scientific investigation to ensure its safety and efficacy.




Cannabis holds potential as a sleep aid, with THC and CBD playing key roles in influencing sleep. Various consumption methods and cannabis strains can impact sleep onset, duration, and quality. While there are potential benefits, it’s crucial to consider the drawbacks, potential dependency, and interactions with other medications. Alternative therapies offer additional options for improving sleep. While current research shows promise, more comprehensive studies are needed to fully understand the efficacy and safety of cannabis as a sleep aid.


Frequently Asked Questions



What type of cannabis is best for sleep?


For better sleep, it’s best to use indica cannabis, which is known for its calming effects and ability to promote relaxation and sleep. Sativa, on the other hand, is more stimulating and often used for an energy boost.

What is the effect of THC on sleep?


THC can promote sleep by increasing adenosine levels and altering sleep stages, potentially increasing NREM sleep and reducing REM sleep


What are the potential benefits of cannabis as a sleep aid?


Cannabis, especially THC, can offer significant benefits as a sleep aid by promoting sleep onset and improving sleep quality, which can be particularly helpful for individuals with chronic pain, PTSD, or multiple sclerosis.


What are the potential drawbacks and risks of using cannabis for sleep?

Using cannabis for sleep may lead to drowsiness and impaired memory the next day due to high THC doses. Additionally, regular use of cannabis can result in more sleep disturbances and difficulty sleeping when trying to stop, potentially leading to dependency.

THCV Cannabis: A Miracle Cannabinoid with Amazing Benefits

THCV Cannabis: A Miracle Cannabinoid with Amazing Benefits

THCV is a cannabinoid that is exciting a lot of researchers and cannabis users alike. It’s a rare compound only present in very small amounts within some cannabis strains plants. Will THCV become as popular as CBD and THC?

THCV, short for tetrahydrocannabivarin, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with properties that may suppress appetite and regulate blood sugar, and provide a host of benefits for the brain, and our neuro-biology.

THCV may help those with conditions ranging from diabetes, obesity, to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

The research is still coming in hot, but all the signs indicate that THCV is a miracle cannabinoid, that is totally different in effects the THC, and seems to have a fascinating antagonistic relationship with it. They work together in miraculous ways!

We are happy to say that our newest strain in the store is Durban Poison, which is absolutely packed with THCV. It is a pure landrace sativa strain, out of Africa. (We wish it had a less threatening name.)

This comprehensive guide unpacks the science behind THCV, spotlighting its role in health and interaction with the endocannabinoid system without getting lost in technical jargon.

Key Takeaways on THCV Cannabis

  • THCV (δ9 tetrahydrocannabivarin) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with a unique chemical profile that includes potential therapeutic benefits such as appetite suppression, neuroprotection, and improved glycemic control.

  • THCV may play a significant role in weight management and metabolic health by enhancing insulin sensitivity, controlling blood glucose levels, and potentially contributing to weight loss through appetite suppression and up-regulation of energy metabolism.

  • The interaction of THCV with the endocannabinoid system, acting as both an antagonist and agonist at the CB1 receptors and a partial agonist at CB2 receptors, is crucial for its diverse physiological effects, including mood and appetite regulation, and neuroprotective properties.

  • THCV works in tandem with THC to create a heightened sense of awareness, marked by high functioning creativity.

Unlocking the Secrets of THCV Cannabis: A Cannabinoid Primer

Cannabis sativa plant with visible trichomes

Unlike THC, which is known for its psychoactive effects, THCV is not psychoactive and possesses a slightly shorter hydrocarbon chain, making it a unique compound in the cannabis sativa plant.

Many people are a bit obsessed with high THC strains… but the true connoisseur with the more, shall we say, refined palette will appreciate the subtle interplay between THCV and THC. We have found it to be a wonderful addition to a nature walk in a forest, or a day crafting, playing music, surfing, or even socialising. You feel capable, alert, creative, energised and extremely functional.

In this article, we will explore the interaction of THCV with the body’s endocannabinoid system, as it can both enhance and block the effects of other cannabinoids, including THC and the naturally occurring endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG).

The Chemical Profile of THCV decreases appetite

Now, are you ready to really geek out? Buckle up.

THCV’s unique chemical profile sets it apart from other cannabinoids. While it shares a similar molecular structure with THC, it is distinguished by a shortened side chain. This gives THCV its unique properties such as neuroprotection, appetite suppression, and improved glycemic control. Its unique chemical profile impacts its physiological effects by reducing appetite, enhancing satiety, speeding up energy metabolism, potentially assisting in seizure reduction, and regulating emotional responses to food.

This ability of THCV to affect multiple physiological systems simultaneously is a testament to its uniquely diverse properties. THCV’s impact on the body is diverse and includes:

  • appetite suppression

  • enhanced satiety

  • neuroprotection

  • improved glycemic control

The potential effects of this cannabinoid, as explored by de Petrocellis et al, present an exciting avenue for cannabis research, potentially contributing to the development of innovative and effective therapies with potential therapeutic benefit.

THCV Cannabis in the Plant Kingdom

THCV is found in various strains of cannabis, but it is particularly abundant in certain African landrace strains, such as Durban Poison. The high THCV content in Durban Poison, a cannabis sativa extract, is due to its unique euphoric effect, which includes a shorter, more productive efficacy period and a distinctive appetite-dampening mechanism. To identify cannabis strains with high THCV content, one should seek out specific strains such as:

The concentration of THCV in cannabis plants can be influenced by various environmental factors and growing conditions. Factors that can impact the concentrations of THCV in cannabis plants include:

  • Light intensity

  • Quality of light

  • Root-zone oxygen availability

  • Elicitors

  • CO2 concentration

  • Temperature

  • Plant density

  • Irrigation strategies

These factors, as studied by riedel et al, can influence the pharmacologic and clinical effects of THCV in healthy male human volunteers.

Through a series of biochemical reactions, THCV is synthesized in cannabis plants, starting with its acidic precursor. This process results in the formation of the neutral, active compound THCV, which has been shown to produce antipsychotic effects.

THCV and Appetite Control: Beyond the ‘Munchies’

One of the most fascinating aspects of THCV is its potential role in appetite control. Unlike THC, which is notorious for inducing the “munchies”, THCV may help control appetite and reduce food cravings.

Yes my friends, THCV is the anti-munchies medicine you might need.

THCV exerts its effects by decreasing appetite, increasing satiety, and up-regulating energy metabolism, suggesting its potential value as an aid for appetite control.

Studies in rodents have demonstrated that THCV has the potential to reduce appetite and enhance the sensation of fullness.

The Science of THCV Cannabis and Food Reward

THCV’s role extends beyond reducing appetite; it may also decrease the appeal of high-calorie foods through its interaction with the brain’s reward system. By modifying neurotransmitter levels and diminishing functional connectivity in crucial reward regions such as the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, THCV could potentially make it easier for individuals to make healthier food choices.

Compared to THC, which is known for its ability to produce psychoactive effects and potentially increase appetite, THCV functions differently and has been observed to reduce appetite, promote feelings of fullness, and does not possess psychoactive properties, suggesting a potentially more advantageous role in regulating food reward.

Potential for Weight Loss with THCV

With its appetite-suppressing effects, THCV could potentially contribute to weight loss. Through appetite reduction, enhancement of satiety, and up-regulation of energy metabolism, THCV may lower food intake and weight gain while improving glycemic and lipid parameters. While further research is needed, the results thus far are promising and suggest that THCV could be a valuable tool for weight management.

Note that while THCV administration in rodents resulted in weight loss, lowered food intake, and decreased body fat content, more research is required to fully understand its potential effects and possible risks in humans. Nevertheless, with its unique properties and potential benefits, THCV holds a promising future in the field of management of obesity and weight management.

THCV’s Role in Metabolic Health

Apart from appetite control and weight loss, THCV could also significantly contribute to metabolic health, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and exhibit a therapeutic metabolic effect. By enhancing insulin sensitivity and regulating blood glucose levels, THCV could potentially offer a multitude of benefits for individuals with metabolic disorders. Obese mouse models have demonstrated THCV’s ability to improve insulin sensitivity. It also enhances glucose tolerance, positively impacting lipid parameters.

Moreover, THCV has the potential to regulate blood glucose levels by significantly reducing fasting plasma glucose and enhancing β-cell function, as well as adiponectin and Apo A concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. With the increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, the potential benefits of THCV in this area are indeed worth exploring further.

Restoring Insulin Sensitivity

One of the most remarkable potential benefits of THCV is its ability to improve insulin sensitivity. In obese mice models, THCV enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance, indicating its potential role in managing diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Insulin sensitivity plays a crucial role in overall health due to its impact on blood glucose levels and its inverse relationship with conditions such as obesity and cardiovascular disease.

THCV ameliorates insulin sensitivity through its interaction with CB2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, along with its modulation of metabolic processes, thereby leading to improvements in insulin sensitivity. This unique property of THCV could open up new possibilities in the treatment and management of diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Controlling Blood Glucose Levels

Besides improving insulin sensitivity, THCV could also aid in controlling blood glucose levels. It does this by significantly reducing fasting plasma glucose and enhancing β-cell function, which plays a critical role in managing glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. As such, THCV could potentially offer a multitude of benefits for individuals struggling with blood glucose regulation.

It’s also important to note that the dosage of THCV can influence its effects on blood glucose levels, with higher doses typically leading to greater improvements in blood glucose regulation. This underlines the importance of finding the right dosage for each individual, which can vary based on factors such as body weight and metabolic health status.

Neurological and Psychological Impacts of THCV Cannabis

This could be the most exciting benefit of THCV.

THCV has been shown to mitigate THC-induced cognitive impairments and function as a neuroprotective agent, offering potential benefits for a range of conditions from Alzheimer’s to Parkinson’s disease.

THCV’s potential benefits include:

  • Neuroprotective effects, which could be particularly beneficial for individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases

  • Slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases

  • Antipsychotic effects, which may be helpful in treating psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia.

Mitigating THC-Induced Cognitive Impairments

A particularly intriguing potential benefit of THCV is its ability to mitigate some of THC’s negative cognitive effects. By acting as a CB1 receptor antagonist, THCV can alleviate the adverse cognitive effects of THC, providing a more balanced and manageable experience for users.

This unique interaction between THCV and THC has opened up new possibilities in the world of cannabis research. By mitigating the cognitive impairments induced by THC, THCV offers a promising path towards safer and more manageable cannabis use. This is particularly important given the increasing popularity and accessibility of cannabis products worldwide.

THCV Cannabis as a Neuroprotective Agent

THCV not only mitigates THC-induced cognitive impairments but also exhibits neuroprotective properties. This means it could potentially play a role in protecting the brain from damage and degeneration, offering potential benefits for individuals with neurodegenerative diseases.

The mechanism through which THCV exerts its neuroprotective effects is still under investigation. However, it is believed to involve interactions with the endocannabinoid system, particularly the CB1 and CB2 receptors. This suggests that THCV could potentially open up new avenues in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

THCV’s Interaction with the Endocannabinoid System

Endocannabinoid system interaction with THCV

The unique interaction of THCV with the endocannabinoid system largely accounts for its wide array of potential benefits. This complex biological system plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including:

  • appetite

  • pain

  • mood

  • memory

THCV interacts with this system by affecting both the CB1 and CB2 receptors and influencing the regulation of endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes.

An understanding of the complexity of this interaction is crucial to fully appreciating the potential therapeutic benefits of THCV. By acting as both an antagonist and agonist at the CB1 receptors, and a potent CB2 receptor partial agonist, THCV has the ability to enhance or mitigate the effects of other cannabinoids and endocannabinoids.

Cannabinoid Receptors and THCV

CB1 and CB2 receptors, two major components of the endocannabinoid system, uniquely interact with THCV. As a CB1 antagonist, THCV can block the effects of CB1 agonists like THC and endocannabinoids AEA and 2AG, thereby mitigating the psychoactive effects commonly associated with THC.

On the other hand, THCV acts as a potent CB2 receptor partial agonist, potentially enhancing certain effects mediated by these receptors, such as anti-inflammatory responses. This dual action on both CB1 and CB2 receptors underscores the complex and multifaceted interaction of THCV with the endocannabinoid system.

Enzymatic Regulation and THCV

In addition to its interaction with cannabinoid receptors, THCV may also influence the regulation of endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes. These enzymes, which include fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), play a crucial role in regulating endocannabinoid function, including the regulation of THCV.

The influence of THCV on endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes could potentially enhance endocannabinoid tone and thereby affect a range of physiological processes, including:

  • Mood regulation

  • Pain regulation

  • Appetite control

  • Neuroprotection

This highlights the potential of THCV as a versatile therapeutic agent with a wide range of potential applications, which could be further explored through a parallel group pilot study, as suggested by Thomas et al.

Identifying Quality THCV Products and strains

To make the most out of your experience, it’s crucial to identify high-quality THCV products and strains.

When it comes to strains, South Asian and African landrace strains, such as Durban Poison, are renowned for their higher THCV content. These strains have developed over centuries in a particular natural environment and are indigenous to specific regions, making them a rich source of THCV.


THCV is a unique cannabinoid with a diverse range of potential therapeutic benefits. From its role in appetite control and weight management to its potential neuroprotective effects, THCV is truly a cannabinoid like no other. Its interaction with the endocannabinoid system, including its effects on both CB1 and CB2 receptors and endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, underscores its potential as a versatile therapeutic agent with a wide range of potential applications.

While more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of THCV, the findings so far are promising. Whether you’re considering THCV for its potential therapeutic benefits or simply curious about its effects, understanding how to determine the right dosage and identify quality products and strains is crucial. With its unique properties and potential benefits, THCV holds a promising future in the field of medical cannabis.

Frequently Asked Questions

What does THCV do to the body?

THCV lacks psychoactive effects and has been shown to decrease appetite, increase satiety, and upregulate energy metabolism in rodent studies, making it potentially beneficial for weight loss, obesity management, and type 2 diabetes.

Will THCV get me high?

It might. In small amounts, THCV is not intoxicating, and it can reduce some side effects of THC. However, higher doses of THCV can produce a stimulating psychoactive effect, which is similar to that offered by THC.

Does THCV help with anxiety?

Yes, THCV has been found to have potential anti-anxiety properties, along with other beneficial effects such as neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory properties. These findings suggest that THCV may be helpful for anxiety.

Is THCV an anti-inflammatory?

Yes, THCV has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects by activating CB2 receptors, reducing both inflammation and inflammatory pain. There is evidence from studies on mice supporting this conclusion.

What is Tetrahydrocannabivarin used for?

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is used for weight loss, reducing body fat, regulating emotional reactions to food, reducing cravings for addictive substances, and managing obesity and type 2 diabetes. Its lack of psychoactive effects makes it a clinically useful remedy for these purposes.

Medicinal Cannabis in Australia: Navigating the Australian Landscape

Medicinal Cannabis in Australia: Navigating the Australian Landscape

Welcome to the world of Medicinal Cannabis in Australia! An exciting and evolving landscape, with potential therapeutic applications that might just change the face of medicine as we know it.

Key Takeaways

  • Medicinal cannabis in Australia is legal but requires a doctor’s prescription and is not subsidized by the government, involving cannabinoids like THC and CBD for therapeutic use.

  • Potential therapeutic applications for medicinal cannabis in Australia include chronic pain, epilepsy, anxiety, PTSD, certain cancers, and symptoms of diseases like multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease, although effectiveness varies.

  • Accessing medicinal cannabis in Australia is a regulated process with specific government approvals needed; it comes in various forms like oils, capsules, and dried flowers, and patients should be aware of possible side effects and drug interactions.

Understanding Medicinal Cannabis in Australia

Medicinal cannabinoids Australia

For many in Australia, cannabis is more than a plant; it holds the potential to change lives. Medicinal cannabis, essentially pharmaceutical preparations derived from the cannabis plant, is being used to treat a variety of medical conditions. However, obtaining it isn’t as straightforward as making a regular store purchase. A doctor needs to prescribe it, ensuring it is a suitable treatment for the patient’s condition.

Current research exploring the therapeutic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids continues to progress. Yet, the initial findings are promising, suggesting considerable benefits in managing chronic pain not related to cancer, along with other conditions such as epilepsy and anxiety.

What are medicinal cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are compounds found in the cannabis plant, like THC and CBD, that are used for therapeutic purposes. Unlike recreational cannabis, medicinal cannabinoids are prescribed by doctors for specific conditions. THC, also known as delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, is the component that can make you feel “high”, while CBD, or cannabidiol, doesn’t have this effect. The combination of these cannabinoids is usually prescribed to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

However, THC and CBD aren’t the only significant players. Other cannabinoids like cannabinol (CBN), THCV, and delta-8-THC are also present in legal medicinal cannabis products. And yes, scientists are exploring the potential benefits of these other cannabinoids too!.

While medicinal cannabis is legal in Australia, it requires a doctor’s prescription. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) regulates the supply of medicinal cannabis. This regulation is important for ensuring safe and controlled access to this treatment. However, it’s not listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), which means it may not be subsidized by the government.

Pharmacists can only provide most medicinal cannabis products adhering strictly to prescription instructions, ensuring that unapproved medicinal cannabis products are not dispensed. Registered medicinal cannabis products have undergone the same regulatory process as other prescription medicines, ensuring the quality and safety of the medicinal cannabis product dispensed to patients.

The Medical Application of Cannabinoids

The potential therapeutic applications of medicinal cannabinoids are extensive. They include:

  • Chronic pain management

  • Treating epilepsy

  • Treating multiple sclerosis

  • Managing sleep disorders

  • Treating anxiety and PTSD

  • Treating certain cancers

  • Managing appetite loss

  • Treating inflammatory bowel diseases

These applications are backed by robust clinical trials and ongoing research, making medical cannabis a promising treatment option for various conditions, including those that benefit from medicinal cannabis and medical marijuana.

It’s important, however, to keep in mind that the effectiveness may vary depending on the condition. For instance, cannabinoids have shown a modest effect on chronic pain, while the evidence for treating cancers, including glioma, is still insufficient.

Chronic pain management

Chronic pain management is one of the most common reasons patients turn to medicinal cannabis. An array of studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in managing chronic pain in adults.

Interestingly, the use of medicinal cannabis could lead to a decrease in opioid use among pain patients, providing an alternative way to manage pain and potentially helping to address the opioid crisis.

Epilepsy treatment

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal brain activity leading to seizures. The potential of medicinal cannabis, particularly in children with severe forms of epilepsy, is promising.

Both THC and CBD have been shown to prevent seizures in animal models. Nonetheless, it’s worth mentioning that approximately a third of people with epilepsy still experience seizures despite using antiepileptic medications.

Multiple sclerosis and spasticity

Multiple sclerosis is a long-term condition that can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms. One of these symptoms, spasticity, can be managed with the help of cannabis.

Cannabinoids, specifically nabiximols, have shown effectiveness in alleviating spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients have reported improvements in spasticity rating compared to a placebo, marking a significant breakthrough in symptom management.

Sleep disorders

Sleep disorders can be debilitating, significantly impacting a person’s quality of life. Cannabinoids, specifically Nabilone and CBD, have shown promise in improving sleep disorders.

Notably, cannabinoids can aid in improving sleep latency and slow-wave sleep. However, long-term use of THC can lead to tolerance and potential sleep disturbances upon cessation.

Anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders can be crippling, often requiring long-term management strategies. The role of the endocannabinoid system in mood regulation suggests potential benefits of cannabinoids for anxiety disorders.

Clinical evidence has shown short-term benefits of cannabinoids in self-reported anxiety symptoms. For instance, cannabidiol was associated with improved outcomes during a simulated public speaking test for patients with generalized social anxiety disorder.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

PTSD is a mental health condition triggered by a terrifying event. Recent research suggests that medicinal cannabis can help manage PTSD symptoms. In particular, Nabilone has shown effectiveness in improving nightmares, overall clinical state, and general well-being more than a placebo. However, more research is needed to validate these findings.

Certain types of cancer (as a complement to other treatments)

The potential application of cannabinoids in the treatment of certain types of cancer is a hot topic of research. In vivo studies have found an antitumor effect of cannabinoids, suggesting a potential role in regulating cancer processes.

Nonetheless, it’s worth highlighting that cannabinoids aren’t a standalone cancer treatment, but they can potentially complement other cancer treatments.

Appetite loss, anorexia, and nausea and vomiting can be side effects of chronic illnesses like HIV/AIDS. Medicinal cannabis, particularly dronabinol, has been used to treat anorexia in AIDS patients experiencing weight loss.

Yet, the supportive evidence for the use of cannabis and cannabinoids in treating AIDS-related anorexia is limited, with its effectiveness and safety not yet validated.

Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, can cause debilitating symptoms. Cannabinoids have the potential to relieve symptoms associated with these diseases, helping manage conditions like abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Still, further research is required to comprehensively determine the effectiveness of cannabinoids and their influence on the underlying inflammatory processes in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Accessing Medicinal Cannabis in Australia

Obtaining medicinal cannabis in Australia involves a regulated process that necessitates a doctor’s prescription along with requisite government approvals. So, it’s not as straightforward as picking it off a shelf in a pharmacy.

The prescription process is handled by medical practitioners who evaluate whether medicinal cannabis is suitable for the patient’s condition. They also arrange the required approvals for medicinal cannabis.

Doctor’s approval and prescription

The journey to acquire medicinal cannabis starts with a doctor’s endorsement and prescription. Any registered medical practitioner or nurse practitioner can prescribe medicinal cannabis to any patient with any medical condition.

If the doctor believes it’s right for you, they can apply to the TGA for authorization to prescribe certain medicinal cannabis products without having to seek approval for each prescription.

Government approvals

Government approvals are crucial for accessing medicinal cannabis. The TGA oversees the supply of medicinal cannabis in Australia, guaranteeing the products adhere to standards of quality, safety, and efficacy.

To get TGA approval, you have to either notify or apply to the TGA for approval through the Special Access Scheme (SAS) or Authorised Prescriber pathway. Once all necessary information is provided, approvals are usually processed within 2 working days.

Types of Medicinal Cannabis Products Available

Medicinal cannabis products in Australia

A wide variety of medicinal cannabis products are accessible to patients in Australia, catering to an array of preferences and needs. These include tablets, oils, tinctures, and other extracts, all of which are forms of a medicinal cannabis product.

Each product type has its unique attributes that make it suitable for different purposes and methods of administration. Let’s delve deeper into the most common types of medicinal cannabis products: oils and tinctures, pills and capsules, and dried flowers.

Oils and tinctures

Oils and tinctures are liquid forms of medicinal cannabis. They are made by extracting the active compounds from the cannabis plant and mixing them with a carrier liquid such as coconut or olive oil.

These liquid forms are usually taken by placing them under the tongue, allowing for direct absorption into the bloodstream. They have been reported to help with conditions like:

  • arthritis-related pain

  • other types of pain

  • anxiety

  • depression

Pills and capsules

Pills and capsules provide a convenient method for oral administration of medicinal cannabis. They are filled with cannabis extract diluted in a food-grade oil.

The dosages vary, and it is crucial to discuss with a healthcare professional to determine the right dosage for individual needs. The effects of medicinal cannabis pills and capsules usually kick in within 30 minutes to 1 hour after intake.

Dried flowers

Dried flowers are another form of medicinal cannabis. They can be vaporized and inhaled, which is considered safer than smoking and delivers a more potent dose. To vaporize properly, you would need a TGA-approved dry-herb vaporizer and the correct temperature settings. However, inhaling vaporized medicinal cannabis dried flowers could cause potential risks like acute toxic emissions and respiratory symptoms such as dry cough.

Potential Side Effects and Risks

As with any medication, medicinal cannabis also presents potential side effects and risks. These can include:

  • Feeling tired

  • Feeling dizzy

  • Feeling nauseous

  • Experiencing anxiety

  • Experiencing paranoia

These side effects are more common with THC-containing products. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using medicinal cannabis.

In addition, while rare, severe adverse events may transpire. These include issues related to driving, cognitive impairment, and drug dependence.

Adverse events

Potential adverse events linked to the use of medicinal cannabis can raise concerns. Particularly, products containing THC can cause:

  • Dry mouth

  • Dizziness

  • Sedation

  • Dysphoria

  • Decreased physical function

To mitigate these, it’s best to use CBD-predominant types during the day, start with a small dose and slowly increase it, and use validated tools to screen and assess patients.

Drug interactions

Interactions between medicinal cannabis and other medications can potentially alter their effectiveness or induce toxicity. It can impact how well other medications work by interfering with the enzymes that break down drugs in the body.

Some medications known to interact negatively with medicinal cannabis include:

  • Sympathomimetics

  • Central nervous system depressants

  • Warfarin

  • Tacrolimus

  • Methadone

  • Tamoxifen

  • Ketoconazole

  • Rifampin

  • Sulfamethoxazole

  • Carbamazepine

  • N-desmethylclobazam

Driving and Medicinal Cannabis Use

Operating a vehicle post using medicinal cannabis, especially those containing THC, can impact abilities and heighten accident risks. In Australia, it’s illegal to drive with any amount of THC in your system, even if it’s from medicinal cannabis.

Oral THC products can impair driving skills and heighten accident risks for approximately 8 hours after consumption. It’s crucial to be aware of these risks before deciding to drive.

Growing Your Own Medicinal Cannabis in Australia

In most parts of Australia, cultivating personal medicinal cannabis is currently illegal, with the exception of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). In the ACT, residents can have up to 50 grams of dry cannabis or 150 grams of wet cannabis, and they’re allowed to grow up to two cannabis plants per person or a maximum of four plants per household. However, even though cannabis is decriminalized in the ACT, it’s still federally illegal.

Costs and Subsidies for Medicinal Cannabis

For many patients, the cost of medicinal cannabis in Australia is a substantial factor to consider. Unfortunately, the Australian government doesn’t currently subsidize medicinal cannabis products, and patients must bear the full cost of their treatment.

The average cost of medicinal cannabis in Australia can range from $50 to $1000 per patient per week. The cost varies depending on individual needs, treatment format, dosage requirements, and brand.

Clinical Trials and Ongoing Research

Clinical trials along with ongoing research play a pivotal role in comprehending the potential benefits and uses of medicinal cannabis for a range of medical conditions. In Australia, several clinical trials are exploring the use of medicinal cannabis in:

  • Chronic pain

  • Anxiety

  • PTSD

  • Other conditions

To further understand its implications, it is essential to discuss medicinal cannabis with healthcare professionals and researchers.

Patients have the opportunity to participate in these trials, thereby contributing to the expanding knowledge base on medicinal cannabis. However, it’s important to note that the guidance for doctors prescribing medicinal cannabis is still general, and it’s left to doctors to use their judgment and consider the patient’s situation and available evidence.


We’ve explored the world of medicinal cannabis in Australia, examining its potential therapeutic uses, legal aspects, and ongoing research. The landscape is rapidly evolving, and as more research emerges, we’re likely to see a better understanding of the full potential of medicinal cannabis. It’s an exciting time in the realm of medicine, and medicinal cannabis is undoubtedly playing a significant role in shaping the future of healthcare.

Frequently Asked Questions

No, cannabinoid oil is not legal in Australia for direct sale without a prescription. Only hemp seed products containing minimal CBD are allowed to be sold without a prescription, but these contain insignificant amounts of CBD.

No, Delta 9 is not legal in Australia due to specific regulations and its status as a controlled substance. Make sure to stay informed about the current regulations to avoid any legal issues.

How can cannabinoids be used as medicine?

Cannabinoids can be used as medicine to treat conditions such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. They have shown promising evidence in providing relief for these conditions.

What do cannabinoids do to the body?

Cannabinoids can help reduce chronic pain and relieve spasticity in conditions like multiple sclerosis. They also regulate various bodily functions and can affect mood, appetite, and pain perception.

What are the applications of cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids have various applications, including relief from conditions such as spasticity in multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. They are also used for their anti-inflammatory and relaxing properties.

Exploring Cannabis Terpenes: The Aromatic Wonders Enhancing Your Marijuana Experience

Exploring Cannabis Terpenes: The Aromatic Wonders Enhancing Your Marijuana Experience

Imagine the intoxicating fragrance of a blooming lavender field, the pungent odour of fresh-cut pine, or the zingy scent of peeled citrus fruits. These captivating aromas are all thanks to terpenes, nature’s very own perfumers. But did you know these same aromatic wonders also play a starring role in the world of cannabis?

That’s right, these complex compounds not only give cannabis its distinctive fragrances but also contribute to the plant’s therapeutic qualities.

Key Takeaways on Cannabis Terpenes

  • Discover the aromatic wonders of terpenes in cannabis, responsible for its unique smells and flavors as well as potential health benefits.

  • Experience the synergy between terpenes and cannabinoids known as the entourage effect that amplifies therapeutic qualities.

The Discovery of Cannabis Terpenes

A cannabis plant with visible aromatic compounds and terpenes

Terpenes are the unsung heroes of the cannabis plant. These aromatic compounds bestow upon each strain its unique bouquet of smells and flavors, including:

  • the citrusy notes of limonene

  • the earthy undertones of myrcene

  • the piney aroma of pinene

  • the peppery scent of caryophyllene

But their role extends beyond sensory delight. Like the plant’s personal bodyguards, cannabis terpenes ward off predators, attract pollinators, and contribute to the plant’s immune system.

Within the cannabis plant, terpenes serve as the chemical compounds that endow strains with their unique flavors and scents. Beyond merely enriching the sensory experience, terpenes have a key role in the plant’s propagation and survival. Some of the functions of terpenes include:

  • Attracting pollinators

  • Defending against herbivores and pests

  • Enhancing the plant’s ability to absorb light

  • Regulating the plant’s temperature

  • Acting as a natural sunscreen

These aromatic compounds are crucial for the cannabis plant’s growth and survival.

Beyond their ecological function, many terpenes found in cannabis have been linked to potential health benefits. For instance, some terpenes have been found to possess anti-microbial and pathogen-combating properties. However, research into their medicinal properties is still in its infancy, and further studies are needed to fully understand their potential health benefits.

The Synergy Between Terpenes and Cannabinoids

Terpenes and cannabinoids may seem like two distinct entities in the cannabis world, but they share a closer relationship than you might think. Like a well-choreographed dance, these compounds work together in harmony, enhancing each other’s therapeutic qualities, in a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.

Terpenes may not possess the psychoactive effects that cannabinoids are known for, but their subtle influence on our mood, coupled with the modification of aroma and experience of consuming medical cannabis, make them essential players in the cannabis experience. They interact with cannabinoids and other cannabis compounds to produce nuanced distinctions in our experience, thereby augmenting the therapeutic effects of cannabis. In this context, terpenes play a crucial role in enhancing the overall benefits of medical cannabis.

However, while anecdotal evidence supports the role of terpenes in influencing the effects of different cannabis strains, scientific validation of these claims is still ongoing. More research is needed to fully validate the role of terpenes in the entourage effect and their influence on the therapeutic effects of cannabis.

Modulation of Psychoactive Effects

Cannabinoids like THC are usually the focal point of discussions on the psychoactive effects of cannabis. However, terpenes also have a part in influencing these effects.Terpenes can modulate the psychoactive effects of THC by interacting with the CB1 receptor, a key player in the psychoactive effects of cannabis.

This potential interchange between terpenes and the CB1 receptor can alter the interaction between THC and the receptor, possibly impacting the psychoactive effects of THC. In particular, terpenes such as:

  • myrcene

  • limonene

  • pinene

  • linalool

are known to modulate these effects.

Terpenes impact the psychoactive effects by interacting with a variety of receptors, including G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) like opioid receptors and CB1/2 receptors. Additionally, they may provide their own biological effects independent of the cannabinoids present in cannabis.

Enhancing Therapeutic Qualities

While terpenes may modulate the psychoactive effects of cannabis, their role in enhancing the therapeutic qualities of cannabinoids is equally significant. Terpenes have been found to amplify the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids, including providing pain relief and anti-inflammatory properties.

Specifically, terpenes contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids, thus amplifying their therapeutic effects. Specifically, the following terpenes have been identified as terpenes that can boost the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids:

  • Myrcene

  • Limonene

  • Pinene

  • Linalool

Studies have indicated that terpenes and terpenoids can exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, with beta-caryophyllene (BCP) specifically demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects.

Terpenes and terpenoids have also been found to be involved in suppressing inflammation mediated by microglia.

Cannabis Terpene Profiles Across Different Marijuana Strains

Different cannabis strains with distinct terpene profiles

Similar to how each cannabis strain possesses its unique aroma and flavor, it also has its distinct terpene profile. This profile, akin to a fingerprint, is a unique blend of terpenes present in each strain, which determines its aroma and effects.

Here is a selection of 6 strains we offer, and their unique terpene profiles, just so you get an idea of how they differ.

  1. Northern Lights: Often rich in myrcene, caryophyllene, and pinene.
  2. Gorilla Glue: Typically contains high levels of caryophyllene, limonene, and myrcene.
  3. Amnesia Haze: Commonly has pinene, caryophyllene, and myrcene.
  4. White Widow: Usually features myrcene, pinene, and caryophyllene.
  5. Jack Herer: Often rich in terpinolene, caryophyllene, and myrcene.
  6. Zkittlez: Known for its caryophyllene, humulene, and linalool.

But what influences these terpene profiles?

Genetics play a major role in shaping the terpene profile of cannabis strains. Variations in the genetics of cannabis plants can result in different types and concentrations of terpenes produced. Breeders often utilize genetic methods to cultivate cannabis strains with desired terpene profiles.

However, genetics aren’t the sole influence on the terpene profile. Environmental variables that can significantly affect terpene production in cannabis include:

Influences on Cannabis Terpene Levels

A multitude of factors can influence terpene production in cannabis plants. Some of these factors include:

  • Growing environment (indoors or outdoors)

  • Light exposure

  • Temperature

  • Type of growing medium utilized

  • Nutrient levels

  • Harvest timing

All of these variables can impact the quantity of terpenes a cannabis plant produces.

Creating the perfect conditions for terpene production can require careful balancing. Here are some factors to consider:

  • High-quality soil with optimal pH and alkalinity levels can nourish the plant.

  • Maintaining a preferably lower temperature can help deter terpene evaporation.

  • Protection from environmental factors such as oxygen, heat, humidity, and light can preserve the terpene profile.

Even exposure to light can directly affect the synthesis of terpenes in cannabis. For example, heightened UV exposure can lessen the overall terpene content in inflorescences, while blue light may boost the concentration of specific terpenes, like cannabigerol (CBG).

Standard Cannabis Extraction Processes

The extraction process of cannabis isn’t solely about isolating the desired compounds—it’s also concerned with maintaining the integrity of the terpene profile. Unfortunately, many terpenes are volatile compounds. These compounds are easily lost during standard cannabis extraction processes..

On a positive note for terpene enthusiasts, some extraction methods, such as the production of live resin, place a priority on preserving terpenes. By keeping temperatures low during extraction, these processes help maintain the terpenes and other volatile compounds in the plant, resulting in a more aromatic and flavorful cannabis experience.

Different extraction methods can have varying effects on the terpene profiles of cannabis. For instance, CO2 extraction is known to preserve terpenes as it is a cold separation process that can protect delicate plant compounds. On the other hand, other extraction methods may result in reduced terpene profiles.

The Entourage Effect: Terpenes and Cannabinoids Working Together

Terpenes and cannabinoids interacting to produce the entourage effect

One of the most powerful takeaways from recent research on cannabis terpenes is their synergistic relationship with cannabinoids like THC and CBD, known as the “entourage effect.” This research suggests that terpenes may play a significant role in enhancing or modulating the effects of cannabinoids, potentially affecting the overall therapeutic and experiential properties of cannabis.

This finding emphasizes the importance of considering the entire spectrum of compounds in cannabis, rather than focusing solely on cannabinoids, for a more comprehensive understanding of its effects and potential medical benefits.

The entourage effect is a concept that suggests that terpenes and cannabinoids work together to produce a more effective therapeutic outcome than if they were consumed separately.

Terpenes might intensify the effects of cannabinoids by interacting with the body’s receptors and potentially heightening cannabinoid activity. This combined effect of cannabinoids and terpenes is thought to amplify the mood-stabilizing effects and efficacy of cannabis products.

However, similar to numerous facets of cannabis science, the evidence backing the entourage effect is still unfolding. While anecdotal evidence suggests a synergistic relationship between terpenes and cannabinoids, more research is needed to fully validate these claims and understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon.

The Medicinal Potential of Cannabis Terpenes

Medical cannabis terpenes targeting cancer cells

The potential medicinal advantages of cannabis terpenes, including their therapeutic properties, are garnering growing attention within scientific and medical communities. From targeting cancer cells to interacting with the endocannabinoid system, the potential of these aromatic compounds is promising.

For instance, certain terpenes, like caryophyllene, have demonstrated potential in handling conditions related to inflammatory symptoms. Other terpenes have been suggested to possess potential benefits for sleep disorders. For instance, compounds found in cannabis, such as CBD and THC, may improve sleep. Studies have shown that 71% of patients using cannabis products for sleep reported improved sleep.

In addition to these conditions, research suggests that caryophyllene may be effective in relieving symptoms associated with a variety of conditions, including:

  • colitis

  • diabetes

  • cerebral ischemia

  • anxiety and depression

  • liver fibrosis

  • Alzheimer-like diseases

Targeting Cancer Cells

Among the potential therapeutic advantages of terpenes, their function in cancer treatment is notably intriguing. Some terpenes, such as limonene, have shown potential in inhibiting cancer cell growth without affecting healthy cells.

Specific terpenes have been found to have anti-cancer activity in cannabis. For instance, limonene, pinene, camphor, terpinene, and beta-myrcene have been reported to have anti-cancer properties. Moreover, research indicates that camphor inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells, terpinene inhibits the growth of human lung cancer cells, and beta-myrcene inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells.

Recent scientific investigations have suggested that α-pinene potentially possesses anti-cancer activity. It has been observed to activate NK cells and enhance NK cell cytotoxicity, implying its potential as a cancer treatment compound. Moreover, preclinical studies have demonstrated that pinene can trigger apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, and suppress tumor growth in animal models.

Furthermore, α-pinene has been shown to effectively curb the growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice.

Interaction with the Endocannabinoid System

Beyond their potential anti-cancer properties, terpenes also interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a physiological system responsible for regulating and balancing essential bodily functions. Terpenes stimulate cannabinergic or TRP channel-mediated signaling in the human body, potentially having poly-pharmacological effects and enhancing the effects of cannabinoids like THC.

It is hypothesized that terpenes activate CB1 receptors at 10-50% of the activation level by THC alone. The implications of this activation are yet to be fully understood, however, it is thought to augment the overall therapeutic effects of cannabis by regulating the interaction between THC and its endogenous receptor.

Similar to cannabinoids, terpenes interact with the endocannabinoid system to produce a synergistic effect and potentially enhance the effects of cannabinoids. They interact with the body’s receptors and neurotransmitters to produce various effects, including:

  • Anti-inflammatory effects

  • Pain relief

  • Relaxation

  • Improved mood

  • Enhanced focus and concentration

Though they do not possess the psychoactive properties of cannabinoids.

Terpenes Beyond Cannabis: A World of Aromatic Compounds

While terpenes have a substantial role in the cannabis plant, they are definitely not confined to it. In fact, terpenes are found in a variety of other plants, offering a world of aromatic compounds beyond cannabis.

These aromatic compounds found in essential oils are the primary constituents responsible for the distinctive aromas of many plants, fruits, and herbs. For instance, limonene lends its citrusy aroma to lemons, while sabinene is found in oil-containing plants like tea tree.

Beyond their aromatic qualities, terpenes from other plants may also provide potential health benefits. For instance, terpenes from sources other than cannabis may provide anti-inflammatory support, relaxation, pain relief, and sedation. Moreover, they may possess anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties.

Common plant sources of terpenes encompass tea, thyme, and forest aerosols.

Innovations in Terpene Enrichment

With growing understanding of terpenes’ therapeutic potential grows, so does the interest in utilizing their power. This has led to innovations in terpene enrichment, which focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effects of cannabis extracts by adding selected terpenes to the final product.

The most recent methods for terpene enrichment in cannabis extracts include:

  • Enriching the extracts with specific terpenes

  • Utilizing advanced extraction techniques for the extraction of phenolic compounds and terpenes

  • Combining the extract with bleaching clay to enrich it with certain terpenes

These innovations aim to amplify the effects of cannabinoids, augment their potency, and offer a more effective therapeutic outcome compared to cannabinoids alone.

Despite these advances, hurdles still exist when trying to enrich terpenes in cannabis. These include:

  • Ensuring safety and reproducibility of the enriched extracts

  • Managing variations in terpene profiles

  • Understanding the factors that influence terpene diversity

  • Adhering to legal regulations and consumer preferences

  • Achieving desired cannabimimetic effects

  • Balancing the entourage effect.

The Growing Role of Terpenes in the Cannabis Industry

Given their aromatic appeal, potential therapeutic advantages, and their part in enriching the overall cannabis experience, it’s unsurprising that terpenes are rising to prominence in the cannabis industry.

Terpenes have become increasingly important in the medical cannabis industry as they may have therapeutic benefits and can improve the cannabis experience. Their influence on the aroma, flavor, and effects of cannabis strains can improve treatments for various conditions such as:

  • pain

  • inflammation

  • depression

  • anxiety

  • addiction

  • epilepsy

  • cancer

The cannabis terpenes market is rapidly growing and evolving, with an estimated market value of $20 billion by 2024. Furthermore, the terpenes market is predicted to witness a significant compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.49% in the coming years.


In the captivating world of cannabis, terpenes are the unsung heroes, bestowing each strain with unique aromatic profiles and potential therapeutic benefits. As we continue to explore their role in enhancing the cannabis experience, from their interaction with cannabinoids in the entourage effect to their potential health benefits, the importance of terpenes is becoming more apparent. As the cannabis industry continues to grow, so too will our understanding of these aromatic wonders.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do terpenes do for your high?

Terpenes do not produce a high on their own, but they can potentially enhance the feeling of being high that is caused by THC. This effect is known as the entourage effect and it implies that terpenes alter or enhance the effects of THC and CBD in the body. Evidence from research supports this claim.

Are terpenes healthy?

Terpenes have been linked to many positive health benefits, such as helping people sleep better and boosting their energy levels. Research has found that terpenes can be a viable alternative treatment for several diseases and the aroma produced by certain terpenes can also have an effect on people’s mood. Therefore, it is safe to say that terpenes are generally healthy.

What do terpenoids do in humans?

Terpenoids possess a wide range of biological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiallergic properties, which makes them useful in the fight against cancer, malaria, inflammation, and infectious diseases.

What are terpenes and in which other plants besides cannabis are they found?

Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in various plants, including cannabis, lemons and other plants with sabinene-containing oil. They have different purposes, such as attracting bees and repelling predators.

What are the most recent methods for terpene enrichment in cannabis extracts?

Recent methods for terpene enrichment in cannabis extracts include enriching with specific terpenes, advanced extraction techniques for phenolic compounds and terpenes, and combining the extract with bleaching clay.

Exploring Cannabis Pain Relief: My Personal Story

Exploring Cannabis Pain Relief: My Personal Story

If someone had told me years ago that I would be using cannabis for pain relief, specifically to manage my chronic joint and back pain, I might have been skeptical. But here I am, sharing my personal journey of discovering the powerful pain-relieving properties of cannabis pain relief and how it has not only improved my quality of life but also allowed me to move away from relying on pharmaceuticals and their terrible side effects.

As we delve deeper into the realm of cannabis for pain relief, it’s crucial to comprehend the science, facts, and research that underpin it. But it’s also important to share my personal journey, the transformation that took place in my life when I embraced cannabis as a pain management tool.

Goodbye Painkillers

Coming off painkillers was no easy feat. The withdrawal symptoms were challenging, and the fear of unmanaged pain was always at the back of my mind. However, the introduction of cannabis into my pain management regimen marked a turning point in my journey. The transition was gradual, but the changes were profound.

I started noticing improvements in my overall health and well-being. The constant fog that had been a side effect of the painkillers began to lift. I found myself more present, more engaged in my day-to-day life. My sleep improved, and so did my mood. I was able to participate in activities that I had previously avoided due to pain or the fear of pain.

But the most significant change was in my quality of life. I was no longer just surviving each day, but actually living. I was able to enjoy simple pleasures that I had taken for granted before the onset of chronic pain – a walk in the park, a game with my kids, a peaceful night’s sleep.

Switching to cannabis for pain relief wasn’t just about managing pain. It was about reclaiming my life from the clutches of chronic pain and the side effects of pharmaceuticals. And while cannabis may not be the solution for everyone, it was, without a doubt, a game-changer for me.

Cannabis Pain Relief: Key Takeaways

  • Exploring Cannabis Pain Relief involves understanding its long history of use to treat pain, navigating regulations for access and learning from personal experience.

  • THC & CBD have different properties. Consult a professional to find the best option for you.

  • Clinical evidence supports cannabis as an effective treatment for chronic non-cancer pain but consulting a healthcare professional is essential before using it.

Understanding Cannabis and Pain Relief

Illustration of cannabis plant with leaves and flowers

Cannabis has been used to treat pain for over 5,000 years, with early Chinese physicians using it for conditions such as:

  • childbirth pain

  • rheumatic pain

  • malaria

  • constipation

Despite this long history, the use of medicinal cannabis for both chronic pain and acute pain management is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

The regulatory landscape for prescribing medical cannabis varies from state to state, making it difficult for patients suffering from chronic pain to access this potential source of relief. My personal experience with chronic joint and back pain led me to explore cannabis as a treatment option. I was on a multitude of painkillers and opiates, which came with terrible side effects. Since turning to medicinal cannabis, I no longer rely on pharmaceuticals, and my quality of life has improved beyond measure. It feels amazing to be free from the “big pharma system”, but also to have experienced such a wonderful reduction of my chronic pain. Only when I came off the opiates did I really find out just how terrible they are for your physical and mental health.

Conditions and Ailments Treated with Cannabis

Cannabis has been used for its medicinal properties for centuries and is currently employed to alleviate symptoms in a variety of conditions. Here are some of the most common ailments where cannabis has shown promising results:

Chronic Pain

As discussed extensively in this article, one of the primary uses of cannabis is for the relief of chronic pain. Conditions that cause chronic pain, such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, endometriosis, and migraine, may benefit from cannabis use.

Multiple Sclerosis

Cannabis may help alleviate the muscle spasms experienced by individuals with multiple sclerosis. While it doesn’t cure the disease, it can help with the discomfort and uncontrollable muscle contractions.

Nausea and Vomiting

Cannabis, particularly strains high in THC, can help control nausea and vomiting. It’s often used by cancer patients who experience these side effects from chemotherapy.


Specific types of cannabis, particularly strains high in CBD, have shown promise in treating certain types of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Mental Health Disorders

Some mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be managed with cannabis use. However, it’s important to note that in some cases, cannabis can exacerbate symptoms, so it’s crucial to use it under the guidance of a healthcare professional.


Cannabis has been used to treat glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure. It’s not a cure, but it can help slow the progression of the disease.


Cannabis, particularly strains high in THC, can induce drowsiness and help individuals who struggle with insomnia.

It’s important to remember that while cannabis can help manage symptoms of these conditions, it should not replace traditional therapies unless advised by a healthcare professional. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment regimen.


Discussing cannabis necessitates a distinction between THC and CBD, the plant’s two primary components. THC is the psychoactive component responsible for the “high” associated with cannabis, while CBD is a non-psychoactive compound that has gained popularity for its potential benefits, including relief from neuropathic pain caused by conditions like spinal cord injury.

CBD has been the focus of research for its potential use in treating various conditions, including addiction, drug withdrawal, and providing significant pain relief. On the other hand, THC has been associated with side effects like dizziness, increased appetite, drowsiness, mood changes, anxiety, and impaired cognition and attention. However, when using THC for pain management, starting with a low dose (2.5-5 mg/day) and gradually increasing it up to 10-20 mg/day can help avoid potential side effects and acute intoxication.

Interestingly, the interplay between THC and CBD can have a significant impact on pain relief. FAAH inhibitors, for example, could provide pain relief by increasing endocannabinoid concentrations in the body. Pain and inflammation control depend on the endocannabinoid tone, which is regulated by enzymes that manage the production, transport, and breakdown of endocannabinoids.

The choice between THC and CBD for pain relief depends on several factors, such as the type of pain, personal preferences, and potential side effects. Consulting a healthcare professional can help guide individuals in selecting the most appropriate cannabis product for their specific needs.

Clinical Evidence Supporting Cannabis Pain Relief

Illustration of neuropathic pain

While there is a growing interest in the use of cannabis for pain relief, it is essential to review the clinical evidence supporting its effectiveness in treating various types of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and arthritis.

A review by Australian researchers concluded that the evidence supporting the effectiveness of cannabinoids in chronic non-cancer pain is limited. The primary outcomes for assessing the effectiveness of medicinal cannabis in treating chronic non-cancer pain include the impact of pain and pain management on patient functioning and quality of life. Despite a few studies suggesting that nabilone, cannabis sativa, THC:CBD extracts, and ajulemic acid may be more effective than placebo in producing a 30% reduction in pain, the evidence is limited due to the small sample sizes of these studies.

Further research, including randomised controlled trials and other clinical trials, is necessary for a better understanding of medicinal cannabis’s role in chronic pain management and for establishing clear usage guidelines.

Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain, a common type of chronic pain, has been a focus of research on cannabis for pain relief. One study of 20 individuals with chronic neuropathic pain showed that taking 120 mg/day of CBD was more effective than taking a placebo. However, potential drug interactions and adverse events should be carefully considered when using cannabis for neuropathic pain.

While more research is necessary to form definitive guidelines for using cannabis for chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain, existing evidence suggests a potential 50% reduction in pain and lower pain scores for patients using medicinal cannabis, compared to those on a placebo.

Fibromyalgia and Arthritis

Research on cannabis for pain relief in fibromyalgia and arthritis is still in its infancy, with limited evidence available to support its use in these conditions. A study conducted in Israel showed that patients who used consumed cannabis for several months experienced less cancer-related pain and improved quality of life. However, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of cannabis in treating pain caused by fibromyalgia and arthritis.

Consulting a healthcare professional is necessary to decide on the most suitable cannabis product and administration method for pain relief in cases of fibromyalgia and arthritis. This will ensure that patients receive the most effective treatment while minimizing potential risks and adverse effects.

Cannabis Treatment Options for Chronic Pain

Photo of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis products

There are various cannabis treatment options for chronic pain, including pharmaceutical-grade products and alternative methods of administration. Pharmaceutical-grade products, such as nabiximols, dronabinol, and THC extracts, have been rigorously tested and certified for their safety and effectiveness. On the other hand, recreational cannabis typically has higher THC concentrations, while medicinal cannabis has higher CBD concentrations to minimize psychoactive effects.

In managing and trying to treat chronic pain, I experimented with various cannabis products and administration methods for treating chronic pain. I discovered that edibles offered me the most substantial pain relief…. by far!

Pharmaceutical-Grade Products

Pharmaceutical-grade medicinal cannabis products are an excellent option for those seeking safe and effective pain relief. These products, such as nabiximols, dronabinol, and THC extracts, have undergone rigorous testing and certification for their safety and efficacy.

The differences between recreational and medicinal cannabis lie in their concentrations of THC and CBD. For pain relief:

  • THC formulations have the strongest evidence for reducing chronic pain symptoms

  • CBD-dominant products have limited data demonstrating their efficacy

  • Balanced THC/CBD combination medicines have also shown efficacy for chronic pain relief.

Discussing with a healthcare professional about the most suitable pharmaceutical-grade product for your specific pain needs is necessary. This discussion should consider potential benefits and risks associated with each product.

Alternative Methods of Administration

Alternative methods of cannabis administration, such as vaporization and edibles, can also provide pain relief for individuals with chronic pain. Vaporization involves heating cannabis plant material or concentrates without burning it, producing aerosolized cannabinoids and terpenes that can be inhaled for therapeutic effects.

In my experience, alternative methods of administration, such as vaporization and edibles, have provided significant pain relief.

Potential Risks and Adverse Effects of Cannabis for Pain Relief

Illustration of potential drug interactions

As with any treatment, there are potential risks and adverse effects associated with using cannabis for pain relief. In my personal experience, I have encountered some adverse events while using cannabis for pain management, but these were manageable and did not outweigh the benefits I experienced.

Some potential adverse events related to cannabis use include:

  • Dizziness

  • Nausea

  • Drowsiness

  • Changes in mood, thinking, and focus

Moreover, the long-term use of medicinal cannabis for chronic non-cancer pain requires further research to determine potential adverse effects.

Weighing the potential benefits of using cannabis for pain relief against possible harms to patients is critical. Any prescription of medicinal cannabis should consider harm minimization, especially for those who drive or operate heavy machinery.

Adverse Events

Potential adverse events associated with cannabis use should be carefully considered when using it for pain relief. Withdrawal syndrome, for example, can occur when suddenly stopping cannabis use and may cause sleep disturbances, depression, and irritability.

Moreover, using medicinal cannabis has been linked to worsening mental illnesses like schizophrenia. In one study, around half of the people with cannabis-induced psychosis ended up being diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Monitoring and managing adverse events related to cannabis use is critical for ensuring safe and effective pain management.

Drug Interactions

Potential drug interactions with cannabis should also be considered when using it for pain management. CBD, for example, can interact with certain drugs because it interacts with cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) enzymes involved in drug metabolism.

Cardiovascular medications, prescription medications, warfarin, tamoxifen, and painkillers are all known to interact with cannabinoids. These interactions can result in:

  • Bleeding complications

  • Increased drowsiness

  • Reduced heart rate and breathing rate

  • Extreme confusion

  • Memory problems

  • Nausea

A healthcare professional’s consultation is necessary to assess the potential benefits and risks of using cannabis for pain relief, including potential drug interactions and monitoring the patient’s treatment response.

Cannabis as an Adjunct or Alternative to Opioids

In my personal experience, using cannabis for pain relief has allowed me to reduce my opioid use and dependence significantly.

A recent study showed a 64% reduction in opioid use among chronic pain patients who used medical marijuana, resulting in fewer side effects and an improved quality of life. Another study on CBD-rich gel for chronic pain patients taking opioids found that half of the patients managed to cut back on their opioid medications, with two even stopping opioids altogether.

Cannabis may offer a promising alternative or adjunct to opioids for pain relief. It has the potential to:

  • Optimize pain control

  • Reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms

  • Improve outcomes of opioid-replacement therapies

  • Reduce prescription opioid intake

Patient Considerations and Guidelines for Cannabis Use in Pain Management

Patients considering cannabis for pain relief need guidance to ensure their pain management is safe and effective. Selecting the right cannabis product and consulting a healthcare professional can help patients make informed decisions about their treatment options.

In my experience, collaborating closely with healthcare professionals and identifying the suitable cannabis product for my pain relief has been pivotal in effectively managing my chronic pain.

It is important to discuss any concerns or questions with a healthcare professional, who can provide valuable insight and guidance on the potential benefits and risks of using cannabis for pain management, as well as monitoring progress and adjusting treatment plans if needed.

Selecting the Right Product

Choosing the appropriate cannabis product for pain relief is an important step in managing chronic pain. Factors to consider include the type of pain, personal preferences, and potential side effects. The role of terpenes in cannabis products should also be considered, as they can interact with cannabinoids like CBD and THC to boost their pain-relieving powers, known as the ‘entourage effect’.

Consulting a healthcare professional or knowledgeable dispensary staff can assist individuals in choosing the most suitable cannabis product for their specific pain needs, considering the potential benefits and risks associated with each product.


In conclusion, the use of cannabis for pain relief offers a promising alternative or adjunct treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain. While more research is needed to fully understand its role in pain management, existing evidence and personal experiences suggest that cannabis can provide significant pain relief for various types of chronic pain.

As we continue to explore the potential of cannabis in pain management, it is essential to consult with healthcare professionals, select the right product, and consider the potential risks and adverse effects associated with its use. With the proper guidance and support, cannabis can be a powerful tool in improving the quality of life for those living with chronic pain.

Frequently Asked Questions

How does eating or smoking cannabis help with pain?

Smoking cannabis helps to alleviate pain by targeting cannabinoid receptors and aiding the passing of messages between nerve cells, making it a useful treatment for neuropathic pain.

Is THC or CBD better for pain?

Overall, it appears that THC may be more effective in reducing pain perception while CBD may work to ease the physical pain itself. Therefore, it would depend on the type of pain being experienced as to which is better. Check this article.

How long does cannabis take to work for pain?

Cannabis can start relieving pain in as little as 20 minutes and can take up to an hour to take full effect. For ongoing treatment, ingestion is the best option.

What are the main components of cannabis that can provide pain relief?

Cannabis provides pain relief through its two main components, THC and CBD. THC is the psychoactive component while CBD is non-psychoactive and has potential benefits for various conditions, including neuropathic pain. Read here.

What is the current state of research on cannabis for pain relief?

Research on cannabis for pain relief is still ongoing, with evidence suggesting its effectiveness but requiring further studies before clear guidelines can be established.

CBD vs THC: Exploring the Therapeutic and Psychoactive Effects

CBD vs THC: Exploring the Therapeutic and Psychoactive Effects

The ongoing debate surrounding the use of cannabis and its derivatives, particularly CBD and THC, continues to spark curiosity and interest. In this article, we will delve into the complex world of these two cannabinoids, exploring their origins, functions, medical applications, psychoactive properties, potential adverse effects, and legal status in the context of CBD vs THC. Furthermore, we will examine the intriguing concept of the entourage effect, where CBD and THC are believed to work synergistically, potentially enhancing the therapeutic benefits of cannabis.

CBD vs THC: Key Takeaways

  • Understanding CBD and THC is essential to comprehend their properties, effects on the body, and interactions with our systems.

  • Both compounds have potential medical applications. CBD has therapeutic benefits for epilepsy, depression, anxiety etc., while THC can treat chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting & AIDS appetite loss.

  • The entourage effect of combining both may lead to improved outcomes for conditions such as pain or mental health disorders due to increased efficacy & bioavailability.

Understanding CBD vs THC

hemp, cannabis, plant

Cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two primary cannabinoids present in cannabis plants, each with its unique properties and effects on the body. While THC is responsible for the psychoactive effects commonly associated with cannabis use, CBD is non-intoxicating and has gained significant attention for its potential medical benefits.

Navigating the world of medical cannabis requires a clear understanding of the distinctions between CBD and THC, along with their interactions with our bodies.

Origin and Structure

CBD and THC both originate from the Cannabis sativa plant, with THC being the primary psychoactive component responsible for the euphoric feeling experienced when smoking marijuana or consuming edibles. Discovered and isolated by Israeli chemist Raphael Mechoulam in 1964, THC has since been the subject of numerous studies, including those related to substance abuse.

On the other hand, CBD is another compound of the cannabis plant, related to THC but lacking its psychoactive effects. The molecular structures of both these cannabinoids consist of fused rings and an ether, found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Their biosynthesis pathways involve the formation of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which then cyclizes to form either tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) or cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

CBD vs THC: Primary Functions

CBD and THC interact with the endocannabinoid system, a biological system responsible for regulating various physiological processes in our body through cannabinoid receptors.

THC exhibits a strong binding affinity to CB1 receptors in the brain, resulting in psychoactive effects such as:

  • hypolocomotion

  • hypothermia

  • catalepsy

  • analgesia

However, CBD exhibits a weak binding affinity to CB1 receptors, thus not inducing psychoactive effects like THC does.

The potential therapeutic window of THC is influenced by its pharmacodynamic tolerance, which may limit the maximal effects of certain drugs but also reduce undesirable effects, enhancing its therapeutic potential. Research suggests that THC may help regulate breathing patterns during sleep, potentially benefiting those with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, chronic THC use has been associated with several potential adverse effects, including psychiatric conditions and cardiovascular issues.

Medical Applications of CBD vs THC

cbd oil, cannabidiol, cannabinoid

Both CBD and THC have demonstrated potential medical applications, with some treatments receiving FDA approval and ongoing research exploring additional therapeutic uses. Despite being regulated by the Drug Enforcement Administration, these compounds, including medical marijuana, continue to gain interest in the medical community.

Subsequent sections discuss the specific medical uses of CBD and THC, emphasizing potential benefits in treating an array of conditions.

CBD Medical Uses

CBD has shown promising results in the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety relief, and potential benefits for other conditions. The FDA-approved medication Epidiolex, which contains CBD, is utilized to treat rare, hard-to-control forms of epilepsy. Furthermore, CBD oil may assist with symptoms associated with depression, anxiety, insomnia, and schizophrenia.

Despite Epidiolex being the sole FDA-approved medication containing CBD, it’s important to highlight CBD’s broad medical applications. These include managing symptoms of:

  • depression

  • anxiety

  • insomnia

  • schizophrenia

The expanding research on CBD’s medical uses underscores its potential therapeutic benefits, bolstering its popularity as a promising treatment option.

THC Medical Uses

THC has proven effective in managing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, as well as stimulating appetite in AIDS patients. The FDA has approved synthetic THC compounds nabilone and dronabinol for these specific applications. However, it is essential to consider potential contraindications, such as hypersensitivity to cannabinoids or any components present in their formulation, when prescribing these treatments. In some cases, doctors may prescribe medical cannabis as an alternative option for patients who do not respond well to synthetic THC compounds.

Research is currently being conducted to evaluate the efficiency of THC in treating fibromyalgia and other forms of chronic pain. Careful evaluation of a patient’s medical history and potential drug interactions is necessary when prescribing THC-based treatments. Furthermore, patients should be thoroughly instructed on the proper use of these medications to minimize any potential psychomotor impairment.

Psychoactive Properties and Effects

fractal, fractal background, design

A significant distinction between CBD and THC lies in their psychoactive properties and effects on the body and mind. While THC is well-known for producing the “high” associated with cannabis use, CBD has minimal or non-existent psychoactive effects.

Subsequent sections will contrast the psychoactive properties and effects of CBD and THC, elucidating their contribution to the overall cannabis experience.

CBD vs THC Psychoactive Effects

CBD does not produce the euphoric sensation commonly associated with cannabis, as it has a relatively low affinity for CB1 receptors in the brain. Studies have shown that CBD can:

  • Counteract the adverse effects of THC, even at low dosages

  • Help to generate a more balanced and clear-headed experience

  • Interact with various receptors, including serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate receptors

  • Result in increased levels of serotonin and anandamide in the brain

Although CBD is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, some individuals may experience altered mental states after using CBD. These may include:

  • Depression

  • Suicidal ideations

  • Confusion

  • Hallucinations

However, it is important to note that these cases are relatively rare and may vary depending on individual factors.

THC Psychoactive Effects

brain, lobes, neurology

THC, the primary psychoactive component in cannabis, binds to endocannabinoid receptors in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia, which are responsible for cognitive processes, memory, pleasure, coordination, and motor skills. The immediate psychoactive effects of THC may include laughter, altered perception of time, and increased appetite, especially when smoking cannabis.

The potential long-term psychoactive effects of THC are still under debate and require further research. However, some studies suggest that chronic THC use may be linked to the following conditions:

  • Hypotension

  • Tachycardia

  • Bradycardia

  • Psychiatric conditions, including fear, distrust, hallucinations, stupor, seizures, and post traumatic stress disorder.

Potential Adverse Effects and Risks

Being mindful of the potential adverse effects and risks associated with CBD and THC use, including both immediate and long-term consequences, is necessary.

Upcoming sections delve into the specific adverse effects and risks of CBD and THC use, offering a comprehensive understanding of these cannabinoids’ potential drawbacks.

CBD Adverse Effects

Commonly reported side effects of CBD include:

  • Dry mouth

  • Low blood pressure

  • Lightheadedness

  • Drowsiness

  • Sedation

  • Somnolence

  • Fatigue

  • Lethargy

  • Malaise

  • Gastrointestinal issues

  • Reduced appetite

  • Nausea

  • Irritability

  • Diarrhea

In some cases, signs of liver injury have also been reported. While CBD is generally considered safe, there are some potential long-term health complications associated with its usage, such as diarrhea, changes in appetite and weight, fatigue, and potential drug interactions.

Given CBD’s generally mild and well-tolerated nature, the potential adverse effects and risks linked to its use still warrant consideration. High doses of CBD have been associated with liver impairment and injury, whereas lower doses commonly found in over-the-counter products are generally well-tolerated.

THC Adverse Effects

Individuals with a genetic predisposition or strong family history of schizophrenia may be susceptible to the onset of the condition if they take regular or large doses of THC. It is important to be mindful of this risk. Long-term THC use has been associated with:

  • Cognitive impairment

  • Anxiety

  • Paranoia

  • Increased risks of psychosis

  • Brain fog

  • Decreased motivation

  • Trouble with learning and attention

  • Decrease in gray matter volume

  • Increased risk of mental health disorders

  • Changes in brain morphology associated with memory and executive function

THC has the potential to be both physically and psychologically addictive, with research suggesting that approximately 9 percent of marijuana users develop an addiction to THC. It is crucial to be aware of the potential adverse effects and risks associated with THC use and to exercise caution in its consumption.

Interactions with Other Medications

Interactions between CBD vs THC, and other medications can influence treatment outcomes and patient safety. Subsequent sections explore these cannabinoids’ potential interactions with various medications, offering valuable insight for those considering CBD or THC’s incorporation into their treatment plans.

CBD Drug Interactions

CBD has the potential to interact with other drugs, such as:

  • Anti-epileptic drugs

  • Antidepressants

  • Opioid analgesics

  • THC

This can alter their effects and potentially increase their levels in the blood. CBD can also interfere with the enzymes in the liver that break down drugs, potentially altering their effects and side effects.

Combining CBD with other medications may pose potential dangers, such as increased levels of certain medications, leading to an increased risk of bleeding. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional or pharmacist to gain an understanding of the possible interactions between CBD and specific medications.

THC Drug Interactions

THC can potentially affect the metabolism of other drugs, causing their blood levels to either fall or rise. THC can induce the metabolism of certain drugs, reducing their levels in the body. Examples of medications that may have hazardous interactions with THC include:

  • Amlodipine

  • Gabapentin

  • Lisinopril

  • Warfarin

  • Tricyclic antidepressants

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional or pharmacist to gain an understanding of the possible interactions between THC and specific medications, as well as to assess the potential risks and benefits associated with the use of THC in combination with other medications.

Legal status and regulations for CBD vs THC significantly differ based on the country and jurisdiction, affecting access to medical and recreational cannabis products.

Upcoming sections review the legal status and regulations of CBD and THC, offering a comprehensive understanding of the current landscape surrounding these cannabinoids.

CBD is classified as a Schedule V substance, which has implications for its use in medical treatments. Here is the legal status of CBD in the United States:

  • Hemp-derived CBD products containing less than 0.3 percent THC are federally legal.

  • Marijuana-derived CBD products are not allowed under federal law.

  • However, state laws may differ, and some states have different regulations on the matter.

Internationally, the legal status of CBD varies, with some countries allowing its use for medicinal purposes and others prohibiting it altogether. It is essential to research and understand the specific regulations in each country before considering the use of CBD.

CBD vs THC in Australia have wildly different situations. THC remains a controlled substance classified as a Schedule 8 substance, which means its use is strictly controlled and must be prescribed by a doctor. It is used in medical treatments for certain conditions, and its recreational use is illegal. However, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) can grant access to medicinal cannabis products, including THC, under the Special Access Scheme or Authorised Prescriber Scheme. remains illegal on a federal level in the United States, classified as a Schedule I substance, with some state laws varying regarding its medical and recreational use. In Canada, THC was legalized for recreational use in October 2018.

The legal status of THC in European countries varies. Some countries have legalized or decriminalized cannabis to varying degrees, such as:

  • The Netherlands

  • Switzerland

  • Austria

  • Croatia

  • The Czech Republic

It is crucial to understand the specific regulations in each jurisdiction, including drug test requirements, before considering the use of THC.

The Entourage Effect: CBD and THC Working Together

A person taking CBD and THC together with synergistic effects.

The entourage effect refers to the synergistic relationship between various compounds present in the cannabis plant, such as:

  • CBD and THC

  • THCV
  • Terpenes

  • Flavonoids

  • Resins

These compounds may work together to enhance the therapeutic benefits of cannabis.

Subsequent sections will scrutinize the entourage effect in greater detail, exploring CBD and THC’s synergistic effects, and discussing conditions that could potentially benefit from this interaction.

Synergistic Effects

The synergistic effects of CBD and THC can produce a more balanced and clear-headed experience, as well as enhanced therapeutic benefits, due to their combined effects when taken together. CBD modulates the effects of THC by tempering the undesired side effects and providing supplementary therapeutic advantages. Additionally, CBD may inhibit the metabolism of THC, leading to more potent and sustained effects, while also reducing some of the psychoactive effects of THC.

The entourage effect is hypothesized to be the result of the synergistic combination of various compounds present in cannabis, such as cannabinoids and terpenes, which may have a greater impact than when used individually. Further research is needed to fully understand and validate the entourage effect.

Examples of Conditions Benefiting from the Entourage Effect

The entourage effect may prove beneficial for conditions such as pain management, epilepsy, and mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that CBD and CBDa-enriched hemp extracts possess anticonvulsant properties when treating epilepsy, and the addition of terpenes to cannabinoids can contribute to the entourage effect. Furthermore, CBD has been shown to induce a pro-hedonic effect in rats, suggesting its potential to treat depression and anxiety.

The potential advantages of the entourage effect include increased therapeutic efficacy, enhanced bioavailability, and diminished side effects. As research advances, a deeper understanding of the entourage effect and its potential benefits for various conditions may emerge.


In summary, a CBD vs THC analysis shows that these two primary cannabinoids found in cannabis plants each have their own unique properties, functions, and effects on the body. Both cannabinoids have demonstrated potential medical applications, with ongoing research exploring their therapeutic benefits for various conditions.

The entourage effect, a synergistic interaction between CBD, THC, and other cannabis compounds, may further enhance the therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, it is essential to be aware of the potential adverse effects, risks, and drug interactions associated with CBD and THC use, as well as the legal status and regulations surrounding these cannabinoids. As our understanding of CBD and THC continues to evolve, so too will our ability to harness their potential benefits for the betterment of human health.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the side effects of THC drops?

The most common side effects of medicinal cannabis treatments such as THC drops are fatigue and sedation, vertigo, nausea and vomiting, fever, decreased or increased appetite, dry mouth, and diarrhoea.

What are the benefits of THC in Australia?

Medicinal cannabis has proven benefits for people with cancer in the form of pain relief, reduced nausea from chemotherapy, and improved appetite. It is an add-on medicine prescribed by doctors to help manage symptoms associated with serious medical conditions.

Is THC oil harmful to kidneys or liver?

Based on available evidence, cannabis does not appear to directly harm kidneys in healthy individuals. However, those with chronic kidney disease should monitor their renal function closely and use the lowest effective dose when using cannabis to avoid potential impacts on transplant candidacy.

What is considered high THC?

High THC levels can be found in cannabis concentrates such as shatter, wax, butters and oils, with levels ranging from 60-90%. These products are used for dabbing and to produce vaping cartridges and infused joints, and are the main ingredient in edibles.