Cannabis in Australia: Laws and future Scenarios

Cannabis in Australia: Laws and future Scenarios

Cannabis, a plant with a long history of human use, has been the subject of increasing interest and debate in Australia. While the plant remains largely illegal for recreational use, the landscape for medical cannabis has been changing rapidly since its federal legalisation in 2016. However, the rules and regulations vary significantly from state to state, creating a complex and often confusing situation for both users and providers. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the current state of cannabis in Australia, including the laws in each state and territory, the medical cannabis market, and the potential future of cannabis in the country.

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The Current State of Cannabis in Australia Law

Back in 2016, Australia gave the green light to medicinal cannabis, and boy, has the market taken off since then! According to FreshLeaf Analytics, sales in the Aussie medical market hit a whopping AU$230 million in 2021. And it doesn’t stop there – research firm Prohibition Partners reckon the cannabis industry in Oceania could be worth a cool US$1.55 billion by 2024, with medicinal cannabis in Australia making up about 40% of that.

But let’s not get ahead of ourselves – our marijuana industry is still in its early days. We’re not quite at the point of legal recreational use, and getting your hands on medical cannabis is still pretty tightly controlled. That said, the Aussie public is warming up to the idea of legalisation, with support nearly doubling in just six years.

Right now, we’ve got two medicinal cannabis products, Sativex and Epidyolex, on the books with the Therapeutic Goods Administration. But don’t expect to see them on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme anytime soon. If you’re a patient wanting to access medicinal cannabis, you’ve got to jump through a few hoops, and the same goes for doctors wanting to prescribe it.

Cannabis Laws Across States and Territories


When it comes to cannabis in Australia, things get a bit tricky because each state and territory has its own set of rules. Let’s break it down:

New South Wales

In NSW, recreational cannabis is a no-go, but if you’re caught with a small amount for the first time, you might get off with a warning. On the medical front, cannabis has been legal since 2016 for certain chronic conditions, and there’s even a Cannabis Medicines Advisory Service to help patients and healthcare providers navigate the system.


Queensland’s rules are pretty similar to NSW. Recreational cannabis is off-limits, but first-time offenders with a small amount might just get a caution. Medical cannabis has been legal since 2016, and any doctor in the state can prescribe CBD and THC products thanks to some relaxed laws in 2020.


In Victoria, recreational cannabis is also illegal. But if you’re caught with less than 50g, you might be diverted away from the criminal justice system and into education and treatment programs. Victoria was the first state to legalise medical cannabis back in 2016. Doctors can prescribe it for certain conditions, but there are strict rules around growing and supplying it.

Western Australia

Over in Western Australia, recreational cannabis is illegal too. But if you’re caught with a small amount, you might be able to attend a cannabis education session instead of facing criminal charges. Like the rest of the country, medical cannabis has been legal since 2016. Doctors can prescribe it for certain conditions, but the rules around growing and supplying it are pretty tight.

South Australia

In South Australia, all forms of cannabis are illegal to keep, use, grow, sell or give away. If you’re caught with some for personal use, you might get a fine without a criminal conviction. But large-scale trafficking or selling can lead to big penalties. If you’re looking for medical cannabis products, you can get them with a prescription from an authorised doctor. But you might also need approval under South Australian Controlled Substances legislation.


In Tasmania, recreational cannabis is illegal. But like other states, you might just get a caution if you’re caught with a small amount for the first time. Medical cannabis has been legal since 2017. Doctors can prescribe it for certain conditions, and there’s a Controlled Access Scheme to provide access to medical cannabis products that aren’t registered in Australia.

Northern Territory

In the Northern Territory, cannabis is “largely decriminalised”. That means if you’re caught with less than 50g in your own home, you’ll probably just get a caution or a fine. But you could still face prison sentences for carrying cannabis in a public place or growing even a small number of plants. Medical cannabis is legal, and doctors can prescribe it for certain conditions.

Australian Capital Territory

In Canberra, marijuana isn’t legal, but it is decriminalised. That means adults can possess up to 50 grams of dried cannabis or 150 grams of fresh cannabis and grow up to two cannabis plants in their homes. But there are still strict rules. For example, you can’t use cannabis anywhere except your own house, and you can’t expose children to cannabis. And while you can’t share, sell or gift cannabis, medical cannabis has been legal since 2016, and doctors can prescribe it for certain conditions.

Looking Ahead

While recreational cannabis isn’t legal yet, more and more Australians are warming up to the idea. A 2021 survey showed that 40% of Aussies thought cannabis should be legalised, twice as many as in 2015. And a Parliamentary Budget Office report predicted that legalising cannabis could bring in $28 billion in tax revenue.




Navigating the world of cannabis in Australia can feel like a bit of a maze. Recreational use is mostly a no-go, but the medical cannabis scene is starting to bloom. Plus, more and more Aussies are warming up to the idea of legalisation. But here’s the kicker – the rules aren’t the same everywhere. Each state has its own set of dos and don’ts, making things a tad tricky for users and suppliers alike. As the conversation continues and the market shifts, it’s anyone’s guess how Australia’s cannabis story will unfold.

Just a heads up, while this article tries to give you a good lay of the land, it’s always a smart move to chat with a legal expert or a healthcare pro for advice that’s tailored just for you. Laws and rules can do a 180 in no time, so it’s super important to stay on top of what’s happening in your neck of the woods.

So, what’s next for cannabis in Australia? Well, that’s the million-dollar question. As we learn more and attitudes continue to change, we’re bound to see more twists and turns in the years to come. Will we see more green lights or tighter reins? Only time will tell. But one thing’s for sure – the Aussie cannabis scene is definitely one to keep an eye on.